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AIR QUALITY MONITORING, EMISSION INVENTORY AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDIES FOR INDIAN CITIES
Background

Ambient air quality monitoring carried out at various cities/towns in the country, under National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) provide air quality data that form the basis for identification of areas with high air pollution levels and in planning the strategies & development of action plans for control & abatement of air pollution. Data generated over the years reveal that particulate matter (SPM & RSPM) are exceeding more than the permissible levels at many locations, particularly in urban areas. Air pollution problem becomes complex due to multiplicity and complexity of air polluting sources (e.g. industries, automobiles, generator sets, domestic fuel burning, road side dusts, construction activities, etc.). A cost-effective approach for improving air quality in polluted areas involves (i) identification of emission sources; (ii) assessment of extent of contribution of these sources on ambient environment; (iii) prioritizing the sources that need to be tackled; (iv) evaluate various options for controlling the sources with regard to feasibility and economic viability; and (v) formulation and implementation of most appropriate action plans. Source apportionment study, which is primarily based on measurements and tracking down the sources through receptor modeling, helps in identifying the sources & extent of their contribution. The Auto Fuel Policy document of Government of India also recommended for carrying out source apportionment studies.

Accordingly, source apportionment studies have been initiated in six major cities viz. (i) Delhi ; (ii) Mumbai; (iii) Chennai; (iv) Bangalore ; (v) Pune; and (vi) Kanpur. The study would focus on apportionment of fine particulates (PM 10 & PM 2.5 ), being most critical. Besides, separate projects on Development of emission factors for vehicles and Development of emission profiles for vehicular as well as non-vehicular sources have also been taken up, which would provide necessary inputs to source apportionment studies. Details of the projects, executing institutes and approximate costs are as follow:

Project Institute
SA for Delhi NEERI
SA for Bangalore TERI
SA for Pune ARAI
SA for Mumbai NEERI
SA for Chennai IITM
SA for Kanpur IITK
EF for Vehicles ARAI
SP (vehicles) ARAI
SP (other sources) IITB and NEERI

The scope for source apportionment studies includes preparation of emission inventories, monitoring of ambient air quality for various pollutants (SPM, PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO2 , NO x , CO, HC, VOC, etc.) at selected locations (07 – 10 locations covering different land use viz. residential, industrial, kerbside, background, etc.), chemical speciation of PM 10 & PM 2.5 as well as source emissions, application of receptor (CMB8) & dispersion models to assess the contribution from various sources, future projections and evaluation of various control options to develop cost-effective action plans.

Documents for reference